Why is integration so much harder than differentiation?

If a function is a combination of other functions whose derivatives are known via composition, addition, etc., the derivative can be calculated using the chain rule and the like. But even the product of integrals can’t be expressed in general in terms of the integral of the products, and forget about composition! Why is this?


Here is an extremely generic answer. Differentiation is a “local” operation: to compute the derivative of a function at a point you only have to know how it behaves in a neighborhood of that point. But integration is a “global” operation: to compute the definite integral of a function in an interval you have to know how it behaves on the entire interval (and to compute the indefinite integral you have to know how it behaves on all intervals). That is a lot of information to summarize. Generally, local things are much easier than global things.

On the other hand, if you can do the global things, they tend to be useful because of how much information goes into them. That’s why theorems like the fundamental theorem of calculus, the full form of Stokes’ theorem, and the main theorems of complex analysis are so powerful: they let us calculate global things in terms of slightly less global things.

Source : Link , Question Author : Venge , Answer Author : user166959

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