# What is the equation for a 3D line?

Just like we have the equation $y=mx+b$ for $\mathbb{R}^{2}$, what would be a equation for $\mathbb{R}^{3}$? Thanks.

Here are three ways to describe the formula of a line in $3$ dimensions. Let’s assume the line $L$ passes through the point $(x_0,y_0,z_0)$ and is traveling in the direction $(a,b,c)$.

Vector Form

$$(x,y,z)=(x_0,y_0,z_0)+t(a,b,c)$$

Here $t$ is a parameter describing a particular point on the line $L$.

Parametric Form

$$x=x_0+ta\\y=y_0+tb\\z=z_0+tc$$

These are basically the equations that result from the three components of vector form.

Symmetric Form

$$\frac{x-x_0}{a}=\frac{y-y_0}{b}=\frac{z-z_0}{c}$$

Here we assume $a,b,$ and $c$ are all nonzero. All we’ve done is solve the parametric equations for $t$ and set them all equal.