What’s the difference between Fourier transformations and Fourier Series?
Are they the same, where a transformation is just used when its applied (i.e. not used in pure mathematics)?
The Fourier series is used to represent a periodic function by a discrete sum of complex exponentials, while the Fourier transform is then used to represent a general, nonperiodic function by a continuous superposition or integral of complex exponentials. The Fourier transform can be viewed as the limit of the Fourier series of a function with the period approaches to infinity, so the limits of integration change from one period to (−∞,∞).
In a classical approach it would not be possible to use the Fourier transform for a periodic function which cannot be in L1(−∞,∞). The use of generalized functions, however, frees us of that restriction and makes it possible to look at the Fourier transform of a periodic function. It can be shown that the Fourier series coefficients of a periodic function are sampled values of the Fourier transform of one period of the function.