Let $X$ be a non-negative random variable and $F_{X}$ the corresponding CDF. Show,

$$E(X) = \int_0^\infty (1-F_X (t)) \, dt$$

when $X$ has : a) a discrete distribution, b) a continuous distribution.I assumed that for the case of a continuous distribution, since $F_X (t) = \mathbb{P}(X\leq t)$, then $1-F_X (t) = 1- \mathbb{P}(X\leq t) = \mathbb{P}(X> t)$. Although how useful integrating that is, I really have no idea.

**Answer**

For **every** nonnegative random variable $X$, whether discrete or continuous or a mix of these,

$$

X=\int_0^X\mathrm dt=\int_0^{+\infty}\mathbf 1_{X\gt t}\,\mathrm dt=\int_0^{+\infty}\mathbf 1_{X\geqslant t}\,\mathrm dt,

$$

hence, by applying Tonelli’s Theorem,

$$

\mathrm E(X)=\int_0^{+\infty}\mathrm P(X\gt t)\,\mathrm dt=\int_0^{+\infty}\mathrm P(X\geqslant t)\,\mathrm dt.

$$

Likewise, for every $p>0$, $$

X^p=\int_0^Xp\,t^{p-1}\,\mathrm dt=\int_0^{+\infty}\mathbf 1_{X\gt t}\,p\,t^{p-1}\,\mathrm dt=\int_0^{+\infty}\mathbf 1_{X\geqslant t}\,p\,t^{p-1}\,\mathrm dt,

$$

hence

$$

\mathrm E(X^p)=\int_0^{+\infty}p\,t^{p-1}\,\mathrm P(X\gt t)\,\mathrm dt=\int_0^{+\infty}p\,t^{p-1}\,\mathrm P(X\geqslant t)\,\mathrm dt.

$$

**Attribution***Source : Link , Question Author : Jon Gan , Answer Author : JEdwards*