If C⊆P2C \subseteq \mathbb{P}^2 is a plane curve, then genus(C)=12(d−1)(d−2)genus(C)=\frac{1}{2}(d-1)(d-2). Compare with example in the notes

In my Algebraic Geometry notes (see http://www.mathematik.uni-kl.de/~gathmann/class/alggeom-2002/main.pdf) there is the following exercise: If C⊆P2 is a plane curve of degree d, then its arithmetic genus g(C) is equal to 12(d−1)(d−2). Compare this to example 0.1.3 (of the notes of course). In fact, the first part of the exercise is easy to solve using the Hilbert … Read more

Characterizations of cycloid

There are several motions that create a cycloid. I have some examples here. Are there any others? Trace of a fixed point on a rolling circle Evolute of another cycloid (the locus of all its centers of curvature) Involute of another cycloid (trace of a pendulum constrained to another cycloid) Envelope of a family of … Read more

Parametric equation of line?

I have an assignment I’m doing where I am supposed to determine a parametric equation of a line orthogonal to a segment , let’s say OP, and passes through the midpoint of this segment. What I have come up with so far is that since the line is orthogonal to OP, would it be easiest … Read more

Circle of radius of Intersection of Plane and Sphere

The plane x+2y−z=4 cuts the sphere x2+y2+z2−x+z−2=0 in a circle of radius? I tried putting value of y from plane in sphere but then I get a zx term. How to proceed? Answer First a normal vector to the plane is (1,2,−1). The sphere equation could be rewritten as (x−12)2+y2+(z+12)2=52, hence the center is (12,0,−12). … Read more

Curve in osculating plane if acceleration is constant

The book Second Year Calculus: From Celestial Mechanics to Special Relativity makes this comment that if acceleration vector is constant, then the curve lies in the osculating plane spanned by unit normal and unit tangent. The book generally proves its claims but this is just given as comment. So I think there is something very … Read more

What will the equation of a sine wave having the axis as a parabola y=ax2y= ax^2 be?

approximate representation of my curve(in red) Answer \newcommand{\vect}[1]{{\bf #1}} Define a point on the parabola through a parametric equation \vect{x}(t) = {t \choose at^2} The tangent vector to the parabola is \vect{v}(t) = \frac{{\rm d}}{{\rm d}t}\vect{x}(t) = {1 \choose 2at} and a perpendicular vector can be constructed from this \vect{u}(t) = {2at \choose -1} moreover, … Read more

How does one get from smooth, projective, algebraic curve of genus one to the usual equation for elliptic curves?

I am used to understanding elliptic curves as a non-singular curve over some field given by the equation $$y^2 = x^3 +ax + b.$$ However, I have also seen that elliptic curves can be characterized as a smooth, projective, algebraic curves of genus one. Clearly the former definition satisfies this characterization, but I … Read more

Difficult equations to rewrite as ellipses

I have this equality that defines an elliptic boundary. I am trying to rewrite it in the form of the equation of an ellipse, but I am having trouble doing that. How would I go about rewriting this so it looks like the equation for an ellipse? a+√(px−xx)2+(py−xy)2sa=b+√(qx−xx)2+(qx−xy)2sb In this equation, a,b,sa,sb are some constants, … Read more

Parallel functions.

In 2 dimensions, we can draw 2 parallel lines that have the same distance from a line. I wanted to find parallel functions of a function and their distance is d to the function for all inputs and tangents are equal as shown in the picture. I assume we have f(x) and we try to … Read more

Is circle the only Jordan curve with this property?

When I was thinking about one problem that has to do with Jordan curves the problem which I am going to describe now, arose in my mind. And here it goes. It is known that for every n≥3 the circle contains regular convex polygon with n sides, or to try to be more precise and … Read more