Can you make a sphere out of a plane?

I had this idea to build a model of Earth in Minecraft. In this game, everything is built on a 2D plane of infinite length and width. But, I wanted to make a world such that someone exploring it could think that they could possibly be walking on a very large sphere. (Stretching or shrinking of different places is OK.)

What I first thought about doing was building a finite rectangular model of the world as like a mercator projection, and tessellating this model infinitely throughout the plane.

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Someone starting in the US could swim eastwards in a straight line across the Atlantic, walk across Africa and Asia, continue through the Pacific and return to the US. This would certainly create a sense of 3D-ness. However, if you travel north from the North Pole, you would wind up immediately at the South Pole. That wouldn’t be right.

After thinking about it, I hypothesized that an explorer of this model might conclude that they were walking on a donut-shaped world, since that would be the shape of a map where the left was looped around to the right (making a cylinder), and then the top was looped to the bottom. For some reason, by simply tessellating the map, I was creating a hole in the world.

Anyway, to solve this issue, I thought about where one ends up after travelling north from various parts of the world. Going north from Canada, and continuing to go in that direction, you end up in Russia and you face south. The opposite is true as well: going north from Russia, you end up in Canada pointing south. Thus, I started to modify the tessellation to properly connect opposing parts of Earth at the poles.

When going north of a map of Earth, the next (duplicate) map would have to be rotated 180 degrees to reflect the fact that one facing south after traversing the north pole. This was OK. However, to properly connect everything, the map also had to be flipped about the vertical axis. On a globe, if Alice starts east of Bob and they together walk North and cross the North Pole, Alice still remains east of Bob. So, going north from a map, the next map must be flipped to preserve the east/west directions that would have been otherwise rotated into the wrong direction.

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Now the situation is hopeless. After an explorer walks across the North Pole in this Minecraft world, he finds himself in a mirrored world. If the world were completely flat, it would feel as if walking North will take you from the outside of a 3D object to its inside.

Although I now think that it is impossible to trick an explorer walking on infinite plane into thinking he is on a sphere-like world, a part of me remains unconvinced. Is it really impossible? Also, how come a naive tessellation introduces a hole? And finally, if an explorer were to roam the world where crossing a pole flips everything, what would he conclude the shape of the world to be?

Answer

Although you can’t make a sphere from a plane, there are map projections that tessellate “naturally” (and place the tricky singular points in the ocean where people tend not to notice them). You can’t, for topological reasons, avoid the points at the corners, but this kind of map does avoid some of the problems of mirroring and is continuous except at those corner points.

Most well known is the “Peirce quincuncial” projection. Wikipedia has an image showing the projection quincuncial projection

Image by Strebe – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0

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Source : Link , Question Author : 986 , Answer Author : J. M. ain’t a mathematician

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