This is a popular problem spreading around. Solve for the shaded reddish/orange area. (more precisely: the area in hex color #FF5600)
ABCD is a square with a side of 10, APD and CPD are semicircles, and ADQB is a quarter circle. The problem is to find the shaded area DPQ.
I was able to solve it with coordinate geometry and calculus, and I verified the exact answer against a numerical calculation on Desmos.
Ultimately the result is 4 terms and not very complicated. So I was wondering: Is there was a way to solve this using trigonometry? Perhaps there is a way to decompose the shapes I am not seeing.
A couple of years ago there was a similar “Find the shaded area” problem for Chinese students. I was able to solve that without calculus, even though it was quite an involved calculation.
Disclosure: I run the YouTube channel MindYourDecisions. I plan to post a video on this topic. I’m okay posting only the calculus solution, but it would be nice to post one using only trigonometry as many have not taken calculus. I will give proper credit to anyone that helps, thanks!
Update: Thanks for everyone’s help! I prepared a video for this and presented 3 methods of solving it (the short way like Achille Hui’s answer, a slightly longer way like David K and Seyed’s answer, and a third way using calculus). I thanked those people in the video on screen, see around 1:30 in this link: https://youtu.be/cPNdvdYn05c.
The area is equal to difference between the area of two lenses.
It is easy to find the area of lenses like the one I did in this question before: How to find the shaded area